Cognitive Processes Associated with Languages
Knowing a language entails more than just knowing the form that it takes; it involves knowing the way in which it functions too. According to (Putz et al, 2010, p. 85) while referring to grownups, say that what is unique about linguistics is the use of conceptual prospective of language for its classification and explanation. Language is viewed as an ability that connects the language specific practices and mechanisms. Most the practices and methods involved in the comprehension of language are common cognitive practices. In this paper, we shall look into the ability of grownups to learn a second language. There are five cognitive processes linked to the acquisition of second language (L2). These include language transfer, transfer of training, strategies of learning, communication strategies and the generalization of rules (Putz et al, 2010, p. 86). The above principles are based on how the brain operates, with regards to memory and attention, according to neural connection, therefore helping in the comprehension of our mental mechanisms.
Memory nodules are the structure blocks of mental structures. In order for one to form a concept, our mind has to recognize stimuli, thereby creating a mental structure. The subsequent information is recorded, and since our mind relates the incoming stimuli with earlier information, there is a probability that it will stimulate the same or connected memory nodules. In case of fresh information, the mind will a diverse set of nodes, that pass on processing signs to either improve the stimulations of the nodes (they amplify or improve the foundations of those nerves) or repress the activation of other nodes (Putz et al, 2010, p. 99). In other terms, once memory nodules have undergone stimulation, two methods regulate their level of activation; suppression and enhancement (Monsell, 2000, p. 35). Their enhancement occurs when the information that they carry is critical for additional structure fabrication and suppressed when the information they carry is no longer as essential. Both suppression and improvement assist in referral of previously named concepts, like repeated names, or pronouns. Thus, when we apply language, we try to classify the environment around us by conveying a word to a notion. Correspondingly, when one listens to a word, he or she is likely to develop a personal model of realism consecutively to acquire its mental picture. Things are classified in languages in an equivalent universal approach, which is based on correspondence.
According to (Monsell, 2010 p. 71) ‘’acquiring control by the mind, in an outline that is vibrant and comprehensible, of one out of what looks numerous concurrently current times or trains of thinking.’’ It is one’s ability to engage, maintain, divide and change focus. The two key aspects that are related to the deployment of attention are, the duration of look and shift rate. Short looks and shifts that are more frequent are linked to either very quick response in the neural response, or better skills at dividing attention. High shift rates are related to a more active comparison of targets. The process of shifting is also a prediction of the person’s response to the speaker or writers cur for new phrase, clause or subject. An individual tends to slow down when they come across these cues, and this means that the individual begins laying out foundation for a new substructure (memory). If one is not attentive, the stimulus in the receptive field restrains the neural reaction, equally restraining one another. Attention to one of these stimuli hinders this repression impact, strongly amplifying the neural response to the target and strongly reducing the neural response to the distracter (Monsell, 2000, p. 71).
Monsell, S., & International Symposium on Attention and Performance (18, 1998, Windsor). (2000). Control of cognitive processes: This book is based on the papers presented at the Eighteenth International Symposium on Attention and Performance, held at Cumberland Lodge, the Great Park, Windsor, Berkshire, England, July 12-18, 1998. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: MIT Press.
Pütz, M., & Sicola, L. (2010). Cognitive processing in second language acquisition: Inside the learner’s mind. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Pub.s